As a teacher may have said, “there is no such thing as a stupid
question”. However, there are ways to ensure a productive exchange for
all parties involved. The two articles below describe how and why it is
important to follow certain protocols when requesting help:
This section contains instructions to troubleshoot user discovered
issues with TrueOS®. These instructions are not exhaustive, but can
serve as a starting point when encountering problems with TrueOS®. If
the particular issue is missing from this section, see the section about
the The TrueOS® Community for instructions about asking for help from
the wider community.
If problems exist with the display settings and manually editing
/etc/X11/xorg.conf or running Xorg --config is
necessary, first tell the TrueOS® system to not automatically start X.
To do this, add
pcdm_enable="NO" temporarily to
/etc/rc.conf, then reboot the system.
The system reboots to a login prompt. After logging in, follow the
instructions in the FreeBSD
to manually configure and test Xorg. Once a working configuration is
found, save it to
/etc/X11/xorg.conf. Then, remove the temporary
line shown above from
/etc/rc.conf and start PCDM with
service pcdm start.
If the graphics white-out after a suspend or resume, run
sysctl hw.acpi.reset_video=1 as the superuser.
If the problem is fixed, carefully add
If the monitor goes blank and does not come back, run
xset -dpms as the regular user account.
If the problem is fixed, add
xset -dpms to the
file in the user’s home directory.
If any display settings change, click Apply for the settings
to be tested. If anything goes wrong during testing, the system returns
to the Display Settings screen for the user to try another
setting. Once satisfied with the tested setting, click “Yes
to save the setting and proceed. Alternately, click Skip to
configure the display settings later.
Installing TrueOS® is usually very simple. However, sometimes problems
occur. This section examines solutions to the most common installation
The TrueOS® installer creates a log which keeps a record of all the
completed steps, as well as any errors. When an installation error
occurs, the TrueOS® installer asks to generate an error report. If
Yes is chosen, a pop-up message asks to save the error log
to a USB stick. Type
y and insert a FAT formatted USB thumb drive
to copy the log.
While in the installer, read this log to see what went wrong. Click the
black Emergency Shell and Utilities icon, then select
shell from the |trueos| Utility Menu. Read the
log by typing
If the error can not be fixed or you believe an installation bug exists,
include the log saved on the USB stick in your bug report by following
the instructions in Report a bug.
If the installer does not arrive at the initial GUI installer screen,
try unplugging as many devices as possible, such as webcams, scanners,
printers, USB mice and keyboards. If this solves the problem, plug in
one piece of hardware at a time, then reboot. This helps pinpoint which
device is causing the problem.
Additionally, you may need to enable EFI in Virtualbox by navigating
Enable EFI (special OSes only).
If the computer freezes while probing hardware and unplugging extra
devices does not fix the problem, it is possible that the installation
media is corrupt. If the Data Integrity Check on the downloaded
file is correct, try burning the file again at a lower speed.
If the system freezes and the video card is suspected to be the cause,
review the system’s BIOS settings. If there is a setting for video
memory, set it to its highest value. Also, check to see if the BIOS is
set to prefer built-in graphics or a non-existent graphics card. On some
systems this is determined by the order of the devices listed; in this
case, be sure the preferred device is listed first. If the BIOS settings
are invisible, move a jumper or remove a battery to make it revert to
the default built-in graphics; check the manual or contact the card
manufacturer for details.
A common cause for problems is the LBA (Logical Block Addressing)
setting in the BIOS. If the PC is not booting before or after
installation, check the BIOS and turn LBA off (do not leave it on
If the SATA settings in the BIOS are set to compatibility mode, try
changing this setting to AHCI. If the system hangs with a BTX error,
try turning off AHCI in the BIOS.
If the USB keyboard is non-functional, check if there is an option in
the BIOS for legacy support in relation to the keyboard, USB,
or both. Enabling this feature in the BIOS may solve this issue.
If the installer boots and a mountroot> command prompt appears, this
may be due to a change in the location of the boot device. This can
occur when the enumeration of a card reader changes. The solution is
ufs:/dev/da1 at the prompt. Depending on the exact
location of the boot media, it may be different from
? at the prompt to display the available devices.
If none of the above has fixed the problem, the The TrueOS® Community
is a valuable resource to assist in tracking down and solving the issue.
While networking usually “just works” on a TrueOS® system, users
sometimes encounter problems, especially when connecting to wireless
networks. Sometimes the problem is due to a configuration error or
sometimes a driver is buggy or unavailable. This section is meant to
help pinpoint the problem, so you can either personally fix it or give
the developers the information they need to fix or create a driver.
When troubleshooting the network configuration, use these files and
/etc/rc.conf file is read when the system boots up. In
order for the system to configure an interface at boot time, an entry
must exist for it in this file. Entries are automatically created
during installation for each active interface. An entry is added (if it
does not exist) or modified (if it already exists) when configuring an
interface using the Network Manager.
Here is an example of the
rc.conf entries for an ethernet driver
(em0) and a wireless driver (run0):
When reading your own file, look for lines beginning with ifconfig.
For a wireless interface, also look for lines containing wlans.
Unlike Linux interface driver names, FreeBSD/TrueOS®
interface driver names indicate the type of chipset. Each driver name
has an associated manual page where you can learn which devices use
that chipset and if there are any configuration options or
limitations for the driver. When reading the man page, do not include
the interface number. For the above example, read
man em and
/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf is used by wireless interfaces and
contains the information needed to connect to a WPA network. If this
file does not already exist, it is created when entering the
Configuration screen of a wireless interface.
The command ifconfig shows the current state of the
interfaces. When reading through its output, ensure the desired
interface is listed, has a status of active, and has an IP address.
Here is a sample ifconfig output showing the entries for an
re0 Ethernet interface and a run0 wireless interface:
re0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 1500 options=389b<RXCSUM,TXCSUM,VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,VLAN_HWCSUM,WOL_UCAST,WOL_MCAST,WOL_MAGIC>
inet 192.168.1.3 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255
media: Ethernet autoselect (100baseTX <full-duplex>)
run0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 2290
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet autoselect mode 11g
wlan0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 1500
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet autoselect (autoselect)
status: no carrier
ssid "" channel 10 (2457 MHz 11g)
country US authmode WPA1+WPA2/802.11i privacy ON deftxkey UNDEF
txpower 0 bmiss 7 scanvalid 60 protmode CTS wme roaming MANUAL bintval 0
In this example, the ethernet interface (re0) is active and has an IP
address. However, the wireless interface (run0, which is associated
with wlan0) has a status of no carrier and does not have an IP
address. In other words, it has not yet successfully connected to the
The dmesg command lists the hardware probed during boot time
and indicates if the associated driver was loaded. To search the output
of this command for specific information, pipe it to grep as
seen in this example:
dmesg | grep Ethernet
re0: <RealTek 8168/8111 B/C/CP/D/DP/E PCIe Gigabit Ethernet> port 0xc000-0xc0ff mem 0xd0204000-0xd0204fff,0xd0200000-0xd0203fff irq 17 at device 0.0 on pci8
re0: Ethernet address: 60:eb:69:0b:dd:4d
dmesg |grep re0
re0: <RealTek 8168/8111 B/C/CP/D/DP/E PCIe Gigabit Ethernet> port 0xc000-0xc0ff mem 0xd0204000-0xd0204fff,0xd0200000-0xd0203fff irq 17 at device 0.0 on pci8
re0: Using 1 MSI messages
re0: Chip rev. 0x28000000
re0: MAC rev. 0x00000000 miibus0: <MII bus> on re0
re0: Ethernet address: 60:eb:69:0b:dd:4d
re0: link state changed to DOWN
re0: link state changed to UP
dmesg | grep run0
run0: <1.0> on usbus3
run0: MAC/BBP RT3070 (rev 0x0201), RF RT2020 (MIMO 1T1R), address 00:25:9c:9f:a2:30
run0: firmware RT2870 loaded
If the desired interface does not show up with ifconfig or
dmesg, it is possible a driver for this card is not provided
with the operating system. If the interface is built into the
motherboard of the computer, use the pciconf command to
discover the type of card:
pciconf -lv | grep Ethernet
device = 'Gigabit Ethernet NIC(NDIS 6.0) (RTL8168/8111/8111c)'
pciconf -lv | grep wireless
device = 'Realtek RTL8191SE wireless LAN 802.11N PCI-E NIC (RTL8191SE?)'
In this example, there is a built-in Ethernet device using a driver
which supports the RTL8168/8111/8111c chipsets. As we saw earlier, the
driver is re0. The built-in wireless device was also found but the ?
indicates a driver for the RTL8191SE chipset was not found. A web
search for FreeBSD RTL8191SE gives an indication if a driver exists
or is being developed.
The FreeBSD Handbook chapter on
provides a good overview of how wireless works and offers additional
Here are some solutions to common printing problems:
- A test page prints but it is all garbled: This typically means the
system is using the wrong driver. If your specific model was not
listed, click for
the printer in the Printers tab. In the screen shown in
Viewing the Default Driver, try choosing another driver close to your model
number. If trial and error does not fix the problem, see if there are
any suggestions for your model in the
Open Printing database. A
web search for freebsd followed by the printer model name may also
help you find the correct driver to use.
- Nothing happens when you try to print: In this case, type
tail -f /var/log/cups/error_log in a console and then try to
print a test page. Any error messages will appear in the console. If
the solution is not obvious from the error messages, try a web search
for the error message. If you are still stuck, post the error, the
model of your printer, and your version of TrueOS® as you
Report a bug.
This is a recreation of the user submitted article:
Forcibly resetting ZFS replication using the command line
lpreserver. A special “thank you!” to TrueOS® user
VulcanRidr for providing this article.
ZFS replication can be somewhat complex, and
keeping all the fiddly bits aligned can be fraught with danger.
I recently had both of my TrueOS® machines start failing to replicate.
My desktop is called defiant and it has two pools: NX74205 and
NCC1764. My laptop is named yukon with a single pool,
NCC74602. I am replicating to my FreeNAS server, named luna, to
NX80101/archive/<FQDN>. I will focus on what I did
to get yukon working again in this document.
188.8.131.52. Original Indications
The SysAdm™ client tray icon was pulsing red. Right-clicking on the
icon and clicking Messages showed the message:
FAILED replication task on NCC74602 -> 192.168.47.20: LOGFILE: /var/log/lpreserver/lpreserver_failed.log
This was lifted from
/var/log/lpreserver/lastrep-send.log shows very little
send from @auto-2017-07-12-01-00-00 to NCC74602/ROOT/12.0-CURRENT-up-20170623_120331@auto-2017-07-14-01-00-00
total estimated size is 0
TIME SENT SNAPSHOT
And no useful errors were being written to the
184.108.40.206. Repairing Replication
My first approach was to use the SysAdm™ Client (see the
Life Preserver section for more details).
Figure 7.1.1 shows my Life Preserver Replication tab:
Fig. 7.1.1 Attempt 1: GUI Replication Repair
I clicked on the dataset in question, then clicked
Initialize. I waited for a few minutes, then clicked
Start. I was immediately rewarded with a pulsing red icon
in the system tray and received the same messages as noted above.
I was working with and want to give special thanks to users
@RodMyers and @NorwegianRockCat. They suggested I use the
lpreserver command line. So I issued these commands:
sudo lpreserver replicate init NCC74602 192.168.47.20
sudo lpreserver replicate run NCC74602 192.168.47.20
Unfortunately, the replication failed again, with these messages:
Fri Jul 14 09:03:34 EDT 2017: Removing NX80101/archive/yukon.sonsofthunder.nanobit.org/ROOT - re-created locally
cannot unmount '/mnt/NX80101/archive/yukon.sonsofthunder.nanobit.org/ROOT': Operation not permitted
Failed creating remote dataset!
cannot create 'NX80101/archive/yukon.sonsofthunder.nanobit.org/ROOT': dataset already exists
It turned out there were a number of child sets. I logged into the
FreeNAS (luna) and issued this command as root:
# zfs destroy -r NX80101/archive/defiant.sonsofthunder.nanobit.org
Then I ran the replicate init and replicate run
commands again from the TrueOS® host. Replication now works and
continues to work, at least until the next fiddly bit breaks.
Type mixer from the command line to see the current sound
Mixer vol is currently set to 0:0
Mixer pcm is currently set to 100:100
Mixer speaker is currently set to 100:100
Mixer mic is currently set to 50:50
Mixer rec is currently set to 1:1
Mixer monitor is currently set to 42:42
Recording source: monitor
If any of these settings are set to 0, set them to a higher value by
specifying the name of the mixer setting and a percentage value up to
mixer vol 100
Setting the mixer vol from 0:0 to 100:100.
To make the change permanent, create a file named
the home directory containing the corrected mixer setting.
If only one or two mixer settings are available, the default mixer
channel needs to change. As the superuser, use
sysctl -w hw.snd.default_unit=1 to alter the mixer channel.
To see if the mixer has changed to the correct channel, type
mixer again. If there are still only one or two mixer
settings, try setting the sysctl value to 2, and, if
Once all of the mixer settings appear and none are set to 0, sound
typically works. If it still does not, these resources can help
pinpoint the problem:
If sound issues persist, consider asking the The TrueOS® Community for
help or Report a bug. When reporting an issue, be sure to include
both the version of TrueOS® and name of the sound card.
7.2. Upgrading from PC-BSD® 10.x to TrueOS®
If any user account uses PersonaCrypt, please be sure to
save any encryption keys to a safe place (e.g. a thumb drive) before
beginning the upgrade process. Loss of encryption keys may result in
being unable to import the home directory after the upgrade is
If the system is using PC-BSD® 10.x, the option to update to TrueOS®
does not appear in the Control Panel version of Update Manager. This is
because a new installation is required in order to migrate to TrueOS®.
However, the TrueOS® installer allows the user to keep all their
existing data and home directories as it provides the ability to
install TrueOS® into a new boot environment. In other words, the new
operating system and updated applications are installed while the ZFS
pool and any existing boot environments are preserved. Since the new
install is in a boot environment, the option to boot back into the
previous PC-BSD® installation remains.
This option overwrites the contents of
/etc. If any
custom configurations exist, save them to a backup or the home
directory first. Alternately, use the SysAdm™
Boot Environment Manager
post-installation to mount the previous PC-BSD® boot environment to
copy over any configuration files which may not have been backed up.
To perform the installation to a new boot environment, start the
TrueOS® installation as described earlier in the chapter. In the
System Selection screen, choose to install either a desktop or
a server. Press Next to view the Disk Selection
screen, shown in Figure 7.2.1.
Fig. 7.2.1 Disk Selection
TrueOS® automatically detects if the drive has an existing boot
environment and fills in the data as necessary. If no boot environments
are detected, Install into Boot Environment is invisible.
To upgrade, select Install into Boot Environment and
choose which existing pool to install into from the drop-down menu. In
the Disk Selection Screen, the user is installing into
the existing tank pool. Press Next when ready.
Be sure Install into Boot Environment is
checked before proceeding, or data can be lost.
A pop-up will appear and ask to start the default Full-Disk
installation. Click Yes to begin the installation.
When the installation is complete, reboot the system and remove the
installation media. The post-installation screens run as described in
the Booting Into TrueOS section to help configure the new
During the Create a User process, recreate the
primary user account using the same user name and user id (UID) from
the previous PC-BSD® system. This allows TrueOS® to associate the
existing home directory with that user. Once logged in, use the
SysAdm™ User Manager to recreate any other
user accounts or to reassociate any PersonaCrypt accounts.
7.4. Contributing to TrueOS®
Many in the TrueOS® community have assisted in its development,
providing valuable contributions to the project. TrueOS® is a large
project with many facets, meaning there is ample opportunity for a wide
variety of skill sets to easily improve the project.
7.4.1. Report a bug
One of the most effective ways to assist the TrueOS® Project is by
reporting problems or bugs encountered while using TrueOS®. Anyone can
report a TrueOS® bug. Here is a rundown of the TrueOS® bug
- TrueOS® uses a GitHub repository
to manage bugs. A GitHub account is required before bugs can be
reported. Navigate to https://github.com/, fill in the required
fields, and click Sign up for GitHub to create a new
The GitHub issues tracker uses email to update contributors
on the status of bugs. Please use a valid and frequently used
email address when creating a GitHub account.
- The TrueOS® code is organized into many repositories representing
the Lumina® desktop, the graphical utilities, SysAdm™, and various
other applications. When reporting a bug, select the
trueos-core repository. If
the bug is specific to Lumina®, use the
lumina repository. Documentation
bugs are tracked in their respective -docs repositories. Issues with
any project website are tracked in
- After clicking a repository’s Issues tab, use the search
bar to confirm no similar bug report exists. If a similar report does
exist, add any additional information to the report using a comment.
While it is not required to log in to search existing bugs, adding a
comment or creating a new report does require signing into GitHub.
- To create a new bug report, navigate to the desired repository and
click Figure 7.4.1 shows the creation of a new bug report.
Fig. 7.4.1 Creating a Bug Report
Here are some basic guidelines for creating useful bug reports:
The ideal title is clear, concise, and informative. Here are some
recommendations for creating a title:
- Be objective and clear (and refrain from using idioms or slang).
- Include the application name if the issue is related to an
- Include keywords from any error messages you receive.
- Avoid using vague language such as “failed”, “useless”, or “crashed”.
Here are some examples to show the difference between a helpful title
and a non-helpful title:
Lumina-FM crashed after clicking on a directory name.
Extracting an archive doesn't work.
Lumina-Archiver shows the error "file not supported" when opening a
Like with the title, being clear and concise is extremely helpful.
Many people feel they must fill this area with lots of information.
While listing a lot of information seems helpful, specific details are
often more useful in issue resolution.
The most important pieces of information to include are:
- What happened.
- What you expected to happen.
- (Critical) Steps to reproduce the issue. Please provide the exact
steps you can take to produce this issue from a fresh boot. If the
issue is application specific, provide the exact steps from a fresh
start of the application.
- List any changes you may have made to your system from its initial
install. In most cases, this does not need to be extremely detailed.
It is very helpful for contributors to know if you have installed or
removed any major applications or if you have changed any OS
settings. If you are unsure of all your changes, list what comes to
- List the hardware of the system where the issue occurred. If you are
using an OEM laptop or desktop, listing the brand or model is usually
sufficient. If the issue is wireless related, please check the system
manufacturer’s website for your brand or model and let us know what
wireless cards may be shipped in your laptop. If you are using a
custom built desktop, all we primarily need to know is CPU, RAM, and
GPU. If you happen to know the motherboard model, please include it
too. Attaching a copy of
/var/run/dmesg.boot is also helpful,
as this file shows the hardware probed the last time the TrueOS®
system booted. Finally, including the output of
uname -a is
Being clear and direct with your report and answers is very helpful. As
we are not watching you use your computer and do not see what you see,
we are totally dependent on your explanation. We only know what you tell
us. Some users worry they have not provided enough information when they
file a ticket. In most cases, providing the information for these five
items is sufficient. If more information is required, you may see
questions posted to your bug report.
Please do not think you are unable to file your bug ticket without
additional information. Providing the listed information above is the
most important information for contributors to know. Providing logs does
not help as much as those five pieces of information. In some cases,
only providing logs to an otherwise empty bug report results in our
being unable to resolve your issue.
Additionally useful information may include:
- Screen captures of the error.
Lumina Screenshot is a useful
tool to quickly screenshot any errors in progress.
- Command Line Output Logs
- Truss Logs
- Debugger Backtrace Logs
After describing the issue, click Submit new issue to create
the issue. The bug tracker attaches a unique number to the report and
sends update messages to your registered email address whenever activity
occurs with the bug report.
7.4.2. Become a Beta Tester
If you enjoy tinkering with operating systems and have a bit of spare
time, one of the most effective ways to assist the TrueOS® community is
reporting problems you encounter while using TrueOS®.
If a spare system or virtual machine is available, you can also download
and test the latest UNSTABLE patches (see Updating TrueOS).
Having as many people as possible using TrueOS® on many different
hardware configurations assists the Project in finding and fixing bugs.
The end result is more polished and usable OS for the entire community.
If you wish to become a tester, join the Telegram
TrueOS Community channel.
Updates are typically announced announced here. You can also see any
problems other testers are finding and can check to see if the problem
exists on your hardware as well.
Anyone can become a beta tester. If you find a bug while testing, be
sure to accurately describe the situation when
Reporting a bug so it can be fixed as soon as
If interested in translating TrueOS® into your native language, start
by choosing which of the three translation areas to work in:
- Translate the graphical menus within the TrueOS® operating system.
- Translate the documentation published with TrueOS®.
- Translate the TrueOS® website.
This section describes each of these translation areas in more detail
and how to begin as a translator.
Regardless of the type of desired translation, you should first join the
TrueOS Community channel.
The first time joining the channel, introduce yourself and indicate
which language(s) and which type(s) of translations you can assist with.
This allows you to meet other volunteers and stay informed of any
notices or updates affecting translators.
220.127.116.11. Interface Translation
TrueOS® uses Weblate for managing
localization of the menu screens used by the installer and the TrueOS®
utilities. Weblate makes it easy to find out if your native language
has been fully localized for TrueOS®. It also makes it easy to verify
and submit translated text, as it provides a web editor and commenting
system. This means translators can spend more time making and
reviewing translations rather than learning how to use a translation
To assist with a localization, open the
TrueOS® translation projects
in a web browser. An example is seen in
Fig. 7.4.2 TrueOS® Weblate Translation System
Before editing a translation, first create a a login account and verify
the activation email. Once logged in, click
Manage your languages, shown in
Fig. 7.4.3 Weblate Dashboard
In the screen shown in Figure 7.4.4, use the
Interface Language drop-down menu to select the language for
the Weblate interface. Then, in Translated languages, use
the arrows to add or remove the languages you wish to
translate. Once any selections are made, click Save.
Fig. 7.4.4 Manage Languages
If the language you wish to translate is missing from the
“Translated languages” menu, request its addition in the
TrueOS Community channel.
Next, click Projects at the top of the screen to select
a localization project. In the example shown in
Figure 7.4.5, the user has selected the
trueos-utils-qt5 project, which represents the localization of the
TrueOS® graphical interface. This screen shows the components of the
project and the current progress of each component’s translation. The
green bar indicates the localization percentage. If a component is not
at 100%, this means its untranslated menus will instead appear in
Fig. 7.4.5 Project Selection
To start translating, click a component name. In the screen shown in
Figure 7.4.6, select a language and click
Fig. 7.4.6 Translation Languages
In the example shown in Figure 7.4.7, the user has
selected to translate the pc-installgui component into the Spanish
language. The English text is displayed in the Source field
and the translator can type the Spanish translation into the
Translation field. Use the arrows near the
Strings needing action field to navigate between strings
Fig. 7.4.7 Translation Editor
If assistance is needed with either a translation or the Weblate system,
ask for help in the
TrueOS Community channel.
18.104.22.168. Documentation Translation
The source for the TrueOS® Users Handbook is stored in the
TrueOS® github repository.
This allows the documentation and its translations to be built with
the operating system. Documentation updates are automatically pushed
to the TrueOS® website and, when the system is updated using the
SysAdm™ Update Manager, the doc updates
are installed to a local copy named
/usr/local/share/trueos/handbook/trueos.html. This keeps an
updated local copy of the handbook available on every user’s system.
The TrueOS® build server provides the HTML version of the TrueOS®
Users Handbook. Instructions for building your own HTML, PDF, or EPUB
version can be found in this
The documentation source files are integrated into the Weblate
translation system so the TrueOS® documentation can be translated
using a web browser. The process is similar to
Interface Translation except trueos-guide must be selected
from the Projects drop-down menu shown in Project Selection.
It is important to be aware of a few elements when translating the
At this time, some formatting tags are still displayed in raw text, as
seen in the examples in Figure 7.4.8 and
Do not remove the formatting as this can break the
documentation build for that language.
In Formatting Characters - Do Not Remove, it is fine to translate the phrase “Using the
Text Installer”, but care must be taken to avoid removing any of the
surrounding colons and backticks, or to change the text of the ref
tag. In More Formatting Characters, the asterisks are used to bold the words
bare minimum. It is fine to translate bare minimum, but do not
remove the asterisks.
Fig. 7.4.8 Formatting Characters - Do Not Remove
Fig. 7.4.9 More Formatting Characters
To build a local HTML copy that includes the latest translations, either
for personal use or to visualize the translated Guide, type these
commands from the command line in TrueOS®:
sudo pkg install trueos-toolchain
git clone git://github.com/trueos/trueos-docs
sudo make i18n
doctrees html-es html-tr trueos-handbook-i18n.txz
html html-fr html-uk
html-da html-id locale
html-de html-pt_BR locale-po
This makes an HTML version of the Guide for each of the available
translations. In this example, translations are available for English
html), Danish, German, Spanish, French, Indonesian,
Brazilian Portuguese, Turkish, and UK English. To update the HTML at a
sudo make i18n
sudo make html
22.214.171.124. Website Translation
If you are interested in translating the TrueOS® website, introduce
yourself in the
TrueOS Community channel
or open a new topic in our
Currently, the website is being translated into several languages,
including: Dutch, French, German, Polish, Spanish, Swedish, and Turkish.
If you like programming, and especially coding on FreeBSD, we would
love to see you join the TrueOS® team as a TrueOS® contributor.
Developers who want to help improve the TrueOS® codebase are always
welcome! To participate in core development, introduce yourself in the
TrueOS® Discourse forum. Feel free
to browse the Issues in the
TrueOS® repository. If you see
something you want to work on, or have a proposal for a project to add
to TrueOS®, mention it and someone will be happy to help you get
Most of the TrueOS® specific GUI tools are developed in C++ using Qt
libraries and other non-GUI development is done using standard Bourne
shell scripts. There may be cases where other languages or libraries
are needed, but those are evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
126.96.36.199. Getting the Source Code
The TrueOS® source code is available from
GitHub. The code is organized into
repositories which represent the Lumina® desktop, the graphical
utilities, SysAdm™, and various other applications. git
needs to be installed in order to download the source code. When using
TrueOS®, git is included in the base install.
To download the source code, cd to the directory to store
the source code and specify the name of the desired repository. In
this example, the user is downloading the source for the graphical
~% cd Projects
~/Projects% git clone git://github.com/trueos/trueos-utils-qt5
This creates a directory with the same name as the repository.
To keep the local copy in sync with the official repository,
git pull within the directory.
Before compiling any source, ensure the Ports Collection is installed.
At this time, git is used to fetch and update ports (see
Fetching ports for the first time (as root):
# git clone http://github.com/trueos/freebsd-ports.git /usr/ports
Update an existing
ports directory (as root):
# cd /usr/ports
# git pull
Then, cd to the directory containing the source to build and
mkport.sh script. In this example, the developer wants
to compile the graphical utilities:
This creates a port which can then be installed. The name of the port is
mkport.sh. This example determines the name of the
port directory, changes to it, and then builds the port. Since this
system is already running the TrueOS® graphical utilities,
reinstall is used to overwrite the current utilities:
grep port= mkport.sh
If you plan to make source changes, several Qt IDEs are available in
the SysAdm™ AppCafe. The
is a full-featured IDE designed to help new Qt users get up and running
faster while boosting the productivity of experienced Qt developers.
Qt Designer is lighter
weight as it is only a
.ui file editor and does not provide any
other IDE functionality.
If planning to submit changes for inclusion in TrueOS®, fork the
repository using the instructions in
fork a repo. Make your
changes to the fork, then submit them by issuing a
git pull request.
Once your changes have been reviewed, they can either be committed or
returned with suggestions for improvement.
188.8.131.52. Design Guidelines
TrueOS® is a community driven project relying on the support of
developers in the community to help in the design and implementation
of new utilities and tools for TrueOS®. The project aims to present a
unified design so programs feel familiar to users. As an example, while
programs could have File, Main, or System as their first
entry in a menu bar, File is used as the accepted norm for the first
category on the menu bar.
This section describes a small list of guidelines for menu and program
design in TrueOS®.
Any graphical program that is a fully featured utility, such as
Life Preserver, should have a File menu.
However, file menus are not necessary for small widget programs or
dialogue boxes. When making a file menu, a good rule of thumb is
keep it simple. Most TrueOS® utilities do not need more than two or
three items on the file menu.
Configure is our adopted standard for the category containing
settings or configuration-related settings. If additional categories
are needed, check to see what other TrueOS® utilities are using.
File menu icons are taken from the KDE Oxygen or material-design
themes located in
/usr/local/share/icons/oxygen. Use these file
menu icons so there are not too many different icons for the same
function. Table 7.4.1 lists some commonly used
icons and their default file names.
Table 7.4.1 Commonly Used File Menu Icons
||File Menu Icon
||row 1, cell 2
||row 2, cell 2
TrueOS® utilities use these buttons:
- Apply: Executes settings changes and leaves the window open.
- Close: Exits program without applying settings.
- OK: Closes dialogue window and saves settings.
- Cancel: Closes dialog window without applying settings.
- Save: Keeps the current settings and closes the window.
Fully functional programs like
Life Preserver do not use close buttons on
the front of the application. Basically, whenever there is a File
menu, that and an x in the top right corner of the
application are used instead. Dialogues and widget programs are
exceptions to this rule.
Many users benefit from keyboard shortcuts and we aim to make them
available in every TrueOS® utility. Qt makes it easy to assign
keyboard shortcuts. For instance, to configure keyboard shortcuts for
browsing the File menu, put &File in the text slot for the menu
entry when making the application. Whichever letter has the
symbol in front of it becomes the hot key. You can also make a shortcut
key by clicking the menu or submenu entry and assigning a shortcut key.
Be careful not to duplicate hot keys or shortcut keys. Every key in a
menu and submenu should have a key assigned for ease of use and
accessibility. Table 7.4.2 and
Table 7.4.3 summarize the commonly used shortcut and
Table 7.4.2 Shortcut Keys
|CTRL + Q
Table 7.4.3 Hot Keys
|Alt + Q
|Alt + S
|Alt + I
|Alt + E
|ALT + F
|ALT + C
|ALT + H
When saving an application’s settings, use the QSettings class
whenever possible. There are two different organizations, depending
whether the application is running with root or user permissions.
Use TrueOS as the organization for applications which run with
user permissions and TrueOS-root for applications which are started
with root permissions via sudo. Proper use prevents the
directory where settings files are saved from being locked down by
root applications, allowing user applications to save and load their
settings. Examples 1 and 2 demonstrate how to use the QSettings
class for each type of permission.
Example 1: User Permission Settings
(user application - C++ code):
QSettings settings("TRUEOS", "myapplication");
Example 2: Root Permission Settings
(root application - C++ code):
QSettings settings("TRUEOS-root", "myapplication");
These resources are also helpful for developers:
TrueOS® is always looking for documentation contributions from its
users. The project currently has a large amount of documentation, and
the community is instrumental in keeping the information up to date and
providing tips and instructions to solve specific problems. However, the
sheer amount of documentation available coupled with the specific
documentation tools can make contributing appear daunting. Actually, the
reverse is true: contributing to the documentation is easy!
184.108.40.206. Make a Simple Documentation Change
These instructions are for simple modifications of the
TrueOS® handbook, but they also apply to the Lumina® and SysAdm™
documentation! Lumina® documentation lives in the
and SysAdm™ guides are in
Making a documentation change can be as simple as using a web browser.
A GitHub account is required to submit patches to TrueOS®, so open a
web browser and log in to GitHub. Making an account is also a simple
process, but be sure to use an often checked email address, as all
communication regarding patches and pull requests are sent to this
Navigate to the trueos-docs
GitHub repository. Click on the
trueos-handbook directory to
view all the documentation files. Open the
corresponding to the chapter needing an update. The chapter names are
reflected in the title of the
Figure 7.4.10 shows the trueos-docs repository and
the contents of the
Fig. 7.4.10 Contents of
Open the desired chapter file by clicking its entry in the list.
trueos.rst is the primary index file and should be
Begin editing the file by clicking the Pencil icon in the
upper right corner above the file’s text. The file moves to edit mode,
where it is now possible to make any necessary changes, as
Figure 7.4.11 shows.
Fig. 7.4.11 Editing
install.rst with GitHub
If making a simple change, it is recommended to avoid adjusting the
specific formatting elements and instead work within or around them.
Once satisfied, scroll to the bottom of the page and write a detailed
commit summary of the new changes. Click Propose file change
(green button), then Create pull request to submit the
changes to the project. GitHub then does an automated merge check. Click
Create pull request again to submit the change to the
repository. The final step is for a developer or project committer to
review the changes, merging or asking for more changes as necessary.
Housekeeping: Once the pull request is merged, delete the now
obsolete patch branch.
220.127.116.11. Advanced Documentation Changes
These instructions are designed for users running TrueOS®.
Actual commands and workflow may change when using a different
Advanced changes to the TrueOS® documentation require an understanding
of the underlying tools and markup language. This section covers
downloading and installing the required tools and source files to build
a local copy of the documentation. It also discusses the reStructured
Text markup language and some of the specific conventions TrueOS® uses
in its documentation. It is recommended the contributor be familiar with
using TrueOS and/or FreeBSD before following these instructions.
There are a few packages to install before making a local copy of the
documentation. Sphinx and its relevant extensions are the most
Open AppCafe® or a command-line and download the py27-sphinx
[user@example] sudo pkg install py27-sphinx
y if prompted to continue installing the package. Next,
install the py27-sphinxcontrib-httpdomain package:
[user@example] sudo pkg install py27-sphinxcontrib-httpdomain
Be sure git is installed. TrueOS® installs this by default.
A GitHub account is also required to follow these instructions. Open a
web browser pointed to https://github.com/ to create an account.
The last critical item to have on hand is a configurable text editor.
Lumina Text Editor
is a simple plaintext editor built in to TrueOS® which works very well
.rst files, but other editors like kate
and scite also function well.
Preparing a local copy of the GitHub repository
Once ready with Sphinx and extensions installed, navigate to the
trueos-docs repository and
fork it by clicking the Fork button in the upper-right
corner of the repository. This creates a copy of the repository on
the user’s personal GitHub account, allowing the user to create patches
and submit pull requests to the upstream (or base) repository.
Now there are two repositories to track on GitHub, the primary
trueos-docs and the user’s forked version on their personal
In the command line, use git clone to clone the forked
[user@example] git clone https://github.com/[github_user]/trueos-docs.git
cd into the newly downloaded
to continue configuring this cloned repo.
Set up the local clone of the forked repository to point to the
[user@example] ~/trueos-docs% git remote -v
origin https://github.com/[github_user]/trueos-docs.git (fetch)
origin https://github.com/[github_user]/trueos-docs.git (push)
[user@example] ~/trueos-docs% git remote add upstream https://github.com/trueos/trueos-docs.git
[user@example] ~/trueos-docs% git remote -v
origin https://github.com/[github_user]/trueos-docs.git (fetch)
origin https://github.com/[github_user]/trueos-docs.git (push)
upstream https://github.com/trueos/trueos-docs.git (fetch)
upstream https://github.com/trueos/trueos-docs.git (push)
This configuration allows changes made in a fork to be synced to the
original repository and changes in the original synced to the fork:
[user@example] ~/trueos-docs% git fetch upstream
[user@example] ~/trueos-docs% git merge upstream/master
[user@example] ~/trueos-docs% git push origin master
One last element to configure is to set the account identity:
[user@example] ~/trueos-docs% git config --global user.email "[firstname.lastname@example.org]"
[user@example] ~/trueos-docs% git config --global user.name "[Your Name]"
This sets the global user name and email for git. Remove
–global from the command to set the value only for the
trueos-docs project directory.
It can be very useful to have two local copies of the
documentation. One to pull in changes from “upstream” and one to
make local changes and build test. This helps prevent merge conflicts
where the local changes accidentally override brand new patches added
to the upstream repository.
Basic Git commands
Once the local
trueos-docs copy is configured, there are a few
general git commands to remember when working in the
- git pull: Update the local copy from the forked GitHub
- git add [path/to_file]: Designate a local file to stage for
commit to the forked repository.
- git status: Display a message showing what is staged for
commit and other relevant information.
- git commit: Create a patch for the forked repository.
Writing a commit message describing the changes is always recommended.
- git push: Send the patch created using
git commit upstream to the user’s forked repository.
GitHub provides a variety of
introductory guides for users new to
its unique workflow. It is recommended to use these guides if confused
about any stage of the commit/push/pull request process.
TrueOS® uses the
Sphinx Documentation Generator
for all its documentation. Sphinx uses
files to generate a variety of output formats, including HTML, LaTeX,
and ePub. The Sphinx builder also tests the markup as it builds,
notifying the user of errors and approximate locations in the file.
Sphinx also supports numerous extensions and customizable elements,
including the output theme, configuration file, and other open-source
The TrueOS® implementation of Sphinx uses a few management files and
directories to handle and build the
.rst source files:
trueos.rst: The master index file for the handbook. This file
governs how the Table of Contents is constructed and which
.rst files to include when starting a build.
conf.py: The Python configuration file for the Sphinx project.
After the initial setup and some customization, this file is generally
images directory: All images used in the documentation are
stored in this directory. Every image is
.png format, and
adding or removing an image to this directory requires updating the
themes directory: Houses the currently used trueos_style
theme. This theme includes
files, plus a custom font. These files govern how the documents look
after an html build.
Makefile: This file houses all the specific Sphinx
Once all the repository forking and configuration is done, the actual
workflow to make and submit documentation changes is straightforward:
- cd into the local copy:
[user@example] ~% cd /trueos-docs/trueos-handbook
- Use git pull upstream master to download any changes from
the upstream repository. Then type
git merge upstream/master to add those changes to the local
copy of the forked repository. Finally, use
git push origin master sync these changes from the upstream
repository the online forked repository.
- Make any changes to the
.rst files using a plaintext editor.
- Build test the changes with make html. The builder output
posts messages if any errors are detected. The built
files are viewable by opening them in a web browser:
[user@example] ~/trueos-docs/trueos-handbook% firefox _build/html/trueos.html &
- Clean the
_build directory with make clean. The
contents of this directory are not needed in the online repositories,
only when conducting build tests.
- Stage a changed file for commit with
git add [path/to_file].
- Continue changing, testing, and staging files as desired, then make
the patch to push to the online forked repository with
git commit. Be sure to add a descriptive commit message
about the changes.
- git push origin master to send the patch to the online
- Open a browser and navigate to the forked
repository. Look for the message saying “This branch is 1 commit ahead
of trueos:master” and click the Pull request button on the
same line. GitHub checks if the branches can be automatically merged,
displaying a green checkmark if everything looks good. Click
Create pull request, add any more details to the commit
message, if necessary, then click Create pull request
- Finished! The patch is submitted for a developer or project maintainer
to review and merge.
Update translation files
Once the initial patch is submitted, it is recommended to submit another
patch to update the translation files:
- cd into the local copy and run make i18n.
- Once the command is finished, type make clean. This removes
a number of unnecessary files. Type git status to view the
newly updated translation files.
- Commit all these files to a patch with git commit -a. Use
the same commit message as the last non-translation change, but add
:TRANSLATIONS to the title. This allows the project contributors
to more easily track when and which translation files are updated.
- Follow the same git push and GitHub website instructions
listed above to submit the patch to the upstream repository.
18.104.22.168. Documentation Conventions
This section is intended to provide references for the specific
conventions of TrueOS® documentation. Table 7.4.4
provides specific conventions of the TrueOS® project:
It is also recommended to open one of the handbook
files for reference.
Table 7.4.4 TrueOS® documentation conventions
||Start a new line every 70
||Certain elements like a long link
or code block.
||Replaced images are moved to
||All images are in the
images/ directory is
||Remove any unnecessary
||Empty lines and at the end of
||Graphical elements: buttons,
icons, fields, columns, and
||Menu selections and paths
||Use the lcp command
||File, volume, and dataset
||This is important.
||Device names or values
entered into fields
in the address field.
||Command line representations
[user@samp] ~% ls /etc
||Multi-line code examples.
.. code-block:: json
||Hyperlink to website outside
the built documentation.
||Hyperlink to an internal
section of the documentation
Table 7.4.5 provides a basic reference for some of
the often used elements of the reStructuredText markup language. See the
Sphinx reStructuredText Primer
for a more complete reference.
Table 7.4.5 reStructuredText Markup Reference
||Test separated by one or more blank lines. All
lines of the same paragraph must be left-aligned to
the same level of indentation.
||One asterisk around text is italics.
||Two asterisks around text is bold.
||Two backquotes around text is a code sample.
||Interpreted text roles: syntax is
* for bullet list entries.
2., … for a numbered list.
||Nested lists are separated from the parent items by
| on the left side to preserve a quote’s
||Start line with .. and a whitespace. End the
comment by adding an empty line, then starting the
next line at the same level of indentation.
Tables are all built as grid tables. Here is an example table to copy,
paste, and rework when necessary:
| Header row, column 1 | Header 2 | Header 3 | Header 4 |
| (header rows optional) | | | |
| body row 1, column 1 | column 2 | column 3 | column 4 |
| body row 2 | ... | ... | |
Images are referenced using the numref role and internal marker:
:numref:`Image %s <example1>` is the example syntax to introduce a
.. figure:: images/example1.png
Caption for Example1.png
These are the specific admonition boxes used by TrueOS® documentation:
A trivial shortcut or efficiency.
Useful information or reminder for accurate command use.
Caution about potential problems introduced by the
procedure or its misuse.
Extreme caution. Data loss or system damage can occur.
Love TrueOS®? Why not tell your family, friends, fellow students and
colleagues about it? You are not the only individual who prefers a
virus-free, feature-rich, and no-cost operating system. Here are some
suggestions for getting started:
- Burn a couple of DVDs and give them away.
- Consider giving a presentation about TrueOS® at a local community
event, conference, or online. Let us know about it through our
The TrueOS® Community channels and we can help spread the word!
- Write a personal blog detailing your journey from your first TrueOS®
install experience to your most recent accomplishment. The blog
could also be used to teach or explain how to perform tasks on
TrueOS®. A regional language blog may help build the community in
your area and to find others with similar interests.