This chapter describes how to use the graphical installer to install a
graphical desktop directly onto a hard drive or into a virtual machine
using virtualization software such as
2.1. Download and Prepare to Install
TrueOS® uses a rolling release model rather than versioned releases.
There are two primary options of TrueOS® install: STABLE and UNSTABLE:
- STABLE is synchronized with FreeBSD. This means users see less
experimental work and generally have a smoother experience. However,
users on STABLE typically wait longer for bugfixes and patches
to be available. While some TrueOS® development may be backported to
STABLE early, FreeBSD patches and port synchronization is done on a
- UNSTABLE is the full leading edge of TrueOS and FreeBSD development.
Patches are very frequent, but can incorporate experimental work from
TrueOS®, FreeBSD, and other Open Source projects and contributions.
UNSTABLE is recommended for users who need the absolute latest work
from FreeBSD or TrueOS® and are willing to tolerate breakage or less
system stability. It is also recommended for users who want to test
and contribute patches to FreeBSD or TrueOS®.
Periodically, the SysAdm™ Update Manager
provides patches to update the operating system. By default, users who
install STABLE receive updates from the STABLE track, and UNSTABLE users
follow the UNSTABLE track. It is possible to switch update tracks
post-installation. See the Updating TrueOS section for
instructions on switching update repositories.
Installation files can be downloaded from the
Figure 2.1.1 below shows the TrueOS® website,
and how to download a STABLE or UNSTABLE version of TrueOS®. It also
shows a drop down menu containing the different types of install files
available for download.
Fig. 2.1.1 UNSTABLE or STABLE Download Screen
To install a graphical desktop, download the TrueOS® Desktop option.
Then, depending on the file chosen, either burn it to a DVD media
or write it to a removable USB device.
If installing a command-line only server is preferred, download and
begin installing the TrueOS® Server option.
Install files can end with a variety of extensions:
- .iso: If the file has an .iso extension, it should be burned to
a DVD media.
- .img: If it has a img extension, it should be burned to a USB
- .md5, .sha256, and .sig: Depending upon the current operating
system and its tools, use the value in any of these files to
determine the integrity of the download, as described in
Data Integrity Check.
- .torrent: If a torrent is available, a file with the same name
and a .torrent extension will be visible.
Refer to Burning the Installation Media for instructions on how
to burn the downloaded file to bootable media.
2.1.1. Data Integrity Check
After downloading the desired file, it is a good idea to check the file
is exactly the same as the one on the TrueOS® download server. While
downloading, a portion of the file may get damaged or lost, making the
installation file unusable. Each TrueOS® installation file has an
associated MD5 and SHA256 checksum. If a checksum of the downloaded
file matches, the download was successful. If a checksum does not match,
try downloading the file again. In order to verify a checksum, use a
checksum verification utility.
Only one of the checksums needs to be verified. The
TrueOS website lists
.MD5, SHA256, and .SIG files. The
TrueOS website has all
If using a Windows system, download and install a utility such as
Raymond’s MD5 & SHA Checksum Utility.
This utility can be used to simultaneously check the MD5, SHA-1,
SHA-256, and SHA-512 checksums of any file. Once installed, launch
the program and use Browse, shown in
Figure 2.1.2, to browse to the location of the
Fig. 2.1.2 Checksum Verification
Once the file is selected, click Open to calculate the
checksums. It may take a minute or so, depending upon the size of the
On Linux and BSD systems, use the built-in md5 or
md5sum command line tool to display the MD5 checksum. In this
example, the user types md5 to view the sum of a
file located in the
Downloads directory. Then, using the
built-in cat command line tool, the user compares the sum to
the contents of the related
~% md5 Downloads/TrueOS-2017-04-21-x64-USB.img
MD5 (Downloads/TrueOS-2017-04-21-x64-USB.img) =
~& cat Downloads/TrueOS-2017-04-21-x64-USB.img.md5
To use the OpenPGP
.sig file, use your preferred utility to
verify the signature. The OpenPGP website has
numerous recommendations for verification utilities.
2.1.3. Writing to a USB Device
There are a few requirements to write the
img file to a USB
- A utility capable of writing the image to a USB media; the available
utilities depend on the installed operating system.
- A USB thumb drive or hard drive large enough to hold the image.
If there is a card reader on the system or the USB drive is
connected using a USB dongle, device enumeration may be affected. For
example, with the USB card reader dongle as the destination, the
device name could be
/dev/da1 instead of
To write the
.img file to a flash card or removable USB drive on
a BSD or Linux system, use the dd command line utility. On a
FreeBSD system, the superuser can use this command to write the file to
the first plugged in USB device:
[user@exmpl] dd if=TrueOS-Desktop-2016-08-11-x64.img of=/dev/da0 bs=1m
1415+1 records in
1415+1 records out
1483990016 bytes transferred in 238.552250 secs (6220818 bytes/sec)
When using the dd command:
- if= designates the input file to be written.
- of= refers to the output file (the device name of the flash card
or removable USB drive). Increment the number in the name if it is not
the first USB device.
- bs= refers to the block size.
On Linux, type mount with the USB stick inserted to
see two or more device nodes corresponding to the USB stick. For
/dev/sdc1 corresponds to the primary partition of the USB
stick. Before using dd, ensure the USB stick is unmounted.
Then, remember to use
/dev/sdc (the device node without the
number) as the option for the output file of=. Once dd
completes, the USB stick may not be mountable on Linux as it has very
limited support for UFS (BSD filesystem created on the USB stick).
To burn the image file on a Windows system, use
When downloading win32-image-writer, download the latest version
-binary.zip and use a utility such as Windows Explorer
or 7zip to unzip the executable.
Launch win32-image-writer.exe to start the Win32 Disk Imager
utility, shown in Figure 2.1.3. Use browse
to browse to the location of the
.img file. Insert a USB thumb
drive and select its drive letter (in this example, drive D). Click
Write and the image will be written to the USB thumb drive.
Fig. 2.1.3 Write an Image using Win32 Disk Imager
To burn the
.img file on Mac OS X, insert a USB stick and open
Terminal. Run diskutil list to discover the device name of
the USB disk, unmount the USB disk, then use dd to write the
image to the raw disk (
rdisk). In this example, an 8 GB USB
stick has a device name of
/dev/disk1 and a raw device name of
#: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER
0: GUID_partition_scheme *500.1 GB disk0
1: EFI 209.7 MB disk0s1
2: Apple_HFS Macintosh HD 499.2 GB disk0s2
3: Apple_Boot Recovery HD 650.0 MB disk0s3
#: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER
0: FDisk_partition_scheme *8.0 GB disk1
1: DOS_FAT_32 UNTITLED 8.0 GB disk1s1
diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk1
Unmount of all volumes on disk1 was successful
sudo dd if=/Users/dru/Downloads/TrueOS-Desktop-2016-08-11-x64.img of=/dev/rdisk1 bs=4m
1415+1 records in
1415+1 records out
1483990016 bytes transferred in 238.552250 secs (6220818 bytes/sec)
2.2. TrueOS® Installation
To begin the TrueOS® installation, insert the prepared boot media and
boot the system. If the computer boots into an existing operating
system instead of the installer, reboot and check the computer’s BIOS
program to ensure the drive containing the installation media is listed
first in the boot order. Save any BIOS changes and reboot.
Once the system boots it displays the menu shown in
Figure 2.2.1. Press
Enter or simply wait a few
moments and this menu automatically prompts the system to continue
Fig. 2.2.1 Initial Boot Menu
If a key other than
Enter is pressed, this screen pauses
to provide additional time to review the options. If this screen is not
paused, it automatically boots into the Boot Multi User
option, displaying the first graphical installer screen, shown in the
Language install section.
The rest of this chapter describes the screens of the graphical
installer. If any problems arise with booting into the graphical
installer, please refer to the
Installation Troubleshooting section of
The first graphical installer screen, seen in
Figure 2.3.1, indicates the installer successfully
loaded and is ready to present its options.
Fig. 2.3.1 Welcome and Language Selection Screen
On the bottom-left side of the screen are several icons and buttons to
help with the installation, explained in Table 2.3.1:
Table 2.3.1 Installer icons
|System with wrench
||Access hardware compatibility information
to quickly determine if the system’s
video card, Ethernet card, wireless
device, and sound card are compatible
||Read a screen’s Help text.
||Use the onscreen keyboard.
|“L” key and U.S. Flag
||Switch between the US keyboard layout and
a user selected layout.
|Blue and White Orb
||Opens the Network Manager in order to
configure system networking during the
|Command Prompt Window
||Access the emergency shell described in
Using the System Utilities Menu.
||Cancel the installation.
||Navigate to the next or previous screen.
Hover over an icon to view its description in the tip bar at the
bottom of the screen.
The default keyboard layout can be changed at this point,
during the post-installation Choose a Language screen, when
Logging In, or during an active session using the included
There is also an option to Load config from USB. If the
configuration from a previous installation has been saved, it can be
loaded at this time from a FAT formatted USB stick.
By default, TrueOS® menus display in English, unless another language
is selected in the drop-down menu in this screen. The menus in TrueOS®
are being continuously translated to other languages. To view the
availability of a specific language, navigate to the
TrueOS® Translation Site. A language may
show less than 100% translation, indicating not all of the menus are
translated. Any untranslated menus are displayed in English. Refer to
Translation to assist in translating the graphical menus.
Small screens may not display the entire installer window,
resulting in buttons at the bottom of the window being hidden and
inaccessible. In this situation, either press
dragging the window with the mouse or press
Alt+N to select
the next button of the window.
When finished reviewing this screen, click Next to move on
to the next installation screen.
2.4. System Selection
The System Selection screen installs a graphical desktop or
a console-based server operating system, as seen in
Figure 2.4.1. It also can be used for
Restore from Life Preserver backup. This chapter concentrates on a
desktop installation. Refer to the Server Installation
instructions for installing a command-line only server.
Fig. 2.4.1 System Selection Screen
By default, TrueOS Desktop (graphical interface) is
selected. The Lumina® Desktop is installed with TrueOS, but
additional software can be installed later using
To install the desktop, click Next.
When installing to an existing PC-BSD® or TrueOS® system, a
pop-up window asks to install to the existing pool without
reformatting it. Press OK to keep the existing pool.
Clicking Cancel formats the existing pool and all of
its data. Refer to the Upgrading from PC-BSD® 10.x to TrueOS®
section for more information about this option.
2.5. Optional Packages
By default, TrueOS® loads only two graphics drivers during the
installation: VESA (for MBR) and SCFB (for UEFI). TrueOS® provides
the option to further choose your graphics driver as part of the
Figure 2.5.1 screen.
Fig. 2.5.1 Optional Installation Packages
When installing TrueOS®, it detects the onboard graphics solution and
displays a list of drivers you can use for TrueOS®. Additionally,
VirtualBox is automatically detected, populating the list with
Virtual Environment Drivers.
Expand the desired list of drivers and choose one which is compatible
with your hardware, then click Next to continue.
2.6. Disk Selection
The Disk Selection screen, seen in Figure 2.6.1,
summarizes the default disk configuration.
Fig. 2.6.1 Disk Selection Screen
By default, TrueOS® assumes the user wants to install
on the entire first disk. When installing TrueOS® as the only
operating system on the computer, click Next to start the
installation. However, if this is not intended, review the rest
of this section to determine how to layout the disk. If TrueOS® is
to be booted with another operating system, please review the section
on Dual Booting.
To select the disk or partition to install TrueOS®, click
Customize Disk Settings to start the TrueOS® Disk Wizard,
shown in Figure 2.6.2.
Fig. 2.6.2 TrueOS® Disk Wizard
The wizard provides two modes of operation:
- Basic: (default) Select this mode if to specify the installation
partition or disk.
- Advanced: Select this mode to specify the installation partition
or disk, use MBR partitioning, change the default ZFS pool name, force
the block size used by ZFS, configure a multi-disk installation, add a
log or cache device, encrypt the disk, or specify the filesystem
Regardless of the selected mode, once the disk wizard
completes and Next is chosen at the Disk Selection
screen, a pop-up window asks to start the installation. Be sure to
review the Summary area before clicking Yes and
starting the installation. The Disk Selection screen is the
very last chance to ensure the system is correctly configured.
After clicking Yes, the selected hard drive or
partition is formatted, losing any existing data.
Once finished configuring the disk, you can save your choices for
later use. Insert a FAT32 or MSDOSFS formatted USB stick and click
Save Config to USB.
2.6.1. Basic Mode
Select Basic and the wizard displays the screen shown
in Figure 2.6.3.
Fig. 2.6.3 Disk or Partition Selection
The first hard disk is typically selected. To install on a different
disk, use the Disk drop-down menu to select the install
By default, the entirety of the selected disk is formatted. If the disk
is divided into partitions or there is an area of free space, use the
Partition drop-down menu to choose the desired partition.
TrueOS® only installs into a primary MBR partition, a GPT
partition, or an area of free space. TrueOS® cannot install into
a secondary or an extended partition. To create an area of free
space for installation, refer to Creating Free Space.
For EFI/UEFI systems, you can choose to Install rEFInd.
The rEFInd boot manager is
used to provide a menu of boot options to the user when the computer
boots. It is required by TrueOS® when Dual Booting.
rEFInd is a boot manager which functions separately from the
Once the disk and partition are selected, click Next to
view a Summary screen to review your choices. To make additional
changes, press Back to return to a previous screen.
Otherwise, click Finish to leave the wizard. Click
Next then Yes to start the installation.
2.6.2. Advanced Mode
After selecting advanced mode, the wizard displays the screen shown in
Fig. 2.6.4 Advanced Mode Options
This screen has several options:
- Disk: Choose the install disk.
- Partition: Select the desired partition or area of free space.
TrueOS® onlys install into a primary MBR partition, a GPT
partition, or an area of free space. TrueOS® cannot install into
a secondary or an extended partition. To create an area of free
space for installation, refer to Creating Free Space.
- Partition Scheme: The default
GPT (Best for new hardware) is a partition table layout
supporting larger partition sizes than the traditional
MBR (Legacy) layout. If the installation disk or
partition is larger than 2 TB, the GPT option must be selected.
Since some older motherboards do not support GPT, if the installation
fails, try again with MBR (Legacy) selected. When in
doubt, use the default selection.
The Partition Scheme section does not appear if a
partition other than Use entire disk is chosen in the
Partition drop-down menu.
- ZFS pool name: To use a pool name other than tank (default),
check this box and type the name of the pool in the text window.
Root is reserved and can not be used as a pool name.
- Force ZFS 4k block size: This option is only used if the disk
supports 4k, even though the disk may lie and report its size as
512b. Use with caution as it may cause the installation to fail.
- Install rEFInd: For EFI/UEFI systems, you can choose to
Install rEFInd. The
rEFInd boot manager is used to
provide a menu of boot options to the user when the computer boots. It
is required by TrueOS® when Dual Booting.
After making any selections, click Next to access the ZFS
configuration screens. The rest of this section provides a ZFS overview
and then demonstrates how to customize the ZFS layout.
184.108.40.206. ZFS Layout
In Advanced Mode, the disk setup wizard allows configuring
the ZFS layout. The initial ZFS configuration screen is seen in
Fig. 2.6.5 ZFS Configuration
If the system contains multiple drives to be used to create a ZFS mirror
or RAIDZ*, check Add additional disks to storage pool, which
enables this screen. Any available disks are listed in the box below the
ZFS Virtual Device Mode drop-down menu. Select the desired
level of redundancy from the ZFS Virtual Device Mode
drop-down menu, then check the box for each disk to add to the
The TrueOS® installer requires entire disks (not partitions)
when adding more disks to the pool.
While ZFS allows using disks of different sizes, this is discouraged as
it decreases storage capacity and ZFS performance.
The TrueOS® installer supports multiple ZFS configurations:
- mirror: Requires a minimum of 2 disks.
- RAIDZ1: Requires a minimum of 3 disks. For best performance,
a maximum of 9 disks is recommended.
- RAIDZ2: Requires a minimum of 4 disks. For best performance, a
maximum of 10 disks is recommended.
- RAIDZ3: Requires a minimum of 5 disks. For best performance, a
maximum of 11 disks is recommended.
- stripe: Requires a minimum of 2 disks.
A stripe does NOT provide ANY redundancy. If any disk fails
in a stripe, all data in the pool is lost!
The installer does not allow a configuration choice in which the system
does not meet the required number of disks. When selecting a
configuration, a message indicates how many more disks are required.
When finished, click Next to choose cache and log devices,
shown in Figure 2.6.6.
Fig. 2.6.6 L2ARC and ZIL
This screen can be used to specify an SSD as an L2ARC read cache or as a
secondary log device (ZIL). Any available devices are listed in the
boxes in this screen.
A separate SSD is needed for each type of device.
Refer to the descriptions for ZIL and L2ARC in the ZFS Overview
to determine if the system would benefit from any of these devices
before adding them in this screen. When finished, click Next
to move to the encryption options, shown in
Fig. 2.6.7 Encryption
This screen can be used to configure full-disk encryption. This is
meant to protect the data on the disks should the system itself be
lost or stolen. This type of encryption prevents the data on the disks
from being available during bootup unless the correct passphrase is
typed at the bootup screen. Once the passphrase is accepted, the data
is unencrypted and can easily be read from disk.
To configure full-disk encryption, check
Encrypt disk with GELI. This option will be greyed out if
GPT (Best for new hardware) is not selected as GELI does not
support MBR partitioning. If needed, use Back to go back to
the Advanced Mode screen and select
GPT (Best for new hardware). Once that box is checked, input
a strong passphrase twice into the Password fields. It is
recommended to create a long and memorable password, but something
difficult to guess.
This passphrase is required to decrypt the disks. If the
passphrase is lost or forgotten, all access will be lost to the
When finished, click Next to move to the mount point screen
shown in Figure 2.6.8.
Fig. 2.6.8 Default ZFS Layout
Regardless of how many disks are selected for the ZFS configuration, the
default layout is the same. ZFS does not require separate partitions for
/var. Instead, create one ZFS
partition (pool) and specify a mount for each dataset. A
partition is not mandatory with ZFS as the TrueOS® installer puts a
64k partition at the beginning of the drive.
Do not remove any of the default mount points. These are
all used by TrueOS®.
Use Add to add additional mount points. The system will ask
for the name of the mount point as size is not limited at creation time.
Instead, the data on any mount point can continue to grow as long as
space remains within the ZFS pool.
To set the swap size, click Swap Size. This prompts you to
enter a size in MB. If a RAIDZ* or mirror exists, a swap partition
of the specified size is created on each disk and mirrored between the
drives. For example, if a 2048 MB swap size is specified, a 2 GB swap
partition is created on all the specified disks, but the total swap
size is 2GB because of redundancy.
Right-click any mount point to toggle between enabling or disabling many
- atime: When set to on, controls whether the access
time for files is updated when they are read. When set to
off, this property avoids producing write traffic when
reading files. This can result in significant performance gains,
though it may confuse mailers and other utilities.
- canmount: If set to off, the filesystem is
- casesensitivity: The default is sensitive, as UNIX
filesystems use case-sensitive file names. For example, “kris” is
different from “Kris”. To tell the dataset to ignore case, select
- checksum: Automatically verifies the integrity of the data
stored on disks. Turning this property off is highly
- compression: If set to on, automatically compresses
stored data to conserve disk space.
- exec: If set to off, processes can not be executed
from within this filesystem.
- setuid: If set to on, the set-UID bit is respected.
After clicking Next, the wizard shows a summary of the
selections. To make further changes, use Back to return to
a previous screen. Otherwise, click Finish to leave the
wizard and return to the Disk Selection screen.
2.7. Installation Progress
Once Yes is selected to start the installation, a progress
screen, seen in Figure 2.7.1, updates the user on
the installation progress.
Fig. 2.7.1 Installation Progress
How long the installation takes depends upon the speed of the hardware
and the installation type selected. A typical installation takes between
5 and 15 minutes.
2.8. Installation Finished
The Installation Finished screen, shown in
Figure 2.8.1, appears once the installation is
Fig. 2.8.1 TrueOS® Installation Complete
Click Finish to complete the TrueOS® installation. The
system immediately begins the reboot process. Once the system is
fully shut down, remove the installation media to ensure the system
boots from the freshly installed local drive.
2.9. Booting Into TrueOS®
After installation, TrueOS® reboots and displays a boot menu. The
first menu displayed depends on whether or not rEFInd is installed or
the user customized the boot loader during the installation.
2.9.1. rEFInd Boot Manager
For EFI or UEFI systems, the user can choose to install rEFInd. This is
a boot manager that is useful when Dual Booting.
Figure 2.9.1 shows the initial rEFInd screen.
Fig. 2.9.1 rEFInd Boot Manager
rEFInd displays any installed operating systems, booting into the
default choice after a few seconds. Press any key other than
Enter to pause automatic booting, then use the arrow keys to
select the desired operating system. Press
Enter to continue
There are a number of options in rEFInd aside from choosing an
- About rEFInd: This option displays the version and copyrights of
rEFInd. It also shows the EFI Revision, Platform, Firmware, and
- Shut Down Computer
- Reboot Computer
- Reboot to Computer Setup Utility: Not recommended for use with
Additional boot options for an operating system are available by
highlighting the OS and pressing
Once TrueOS® is chosen in rEFInd, the next boot screen displays.
2.9.2. BSD Boot Loader
A system with a default or “BSD” install option for the boot loader
loads the boot menu seen in Figure 2.9.2.
This menu is modified from the one seen when booting into
the installer. While the options are the same,
they are rearranged slightly to prevent confusion and unnecessary
Fig. 2.9.2 TrueOS® Boot Menu
This menu provides several options. Pause this menu by pressing any key
Enter. To select an option, press either the bolded
number or key for that option. Once any selections are made, press
Enter to boot using the specified options.
- 1. Boot TrueOS [Enter]: This is the default option for
booting TrueOS®. The system automatically uses this option either
after pausing for a moment or if
Enter is pressed while the
boot menu is displayed.
- 2. Configure Boot Options: Press either
o to see the boot options screen, shown in
Figure 2.9.3. To change an option, press either the
bolded number or key for the option to toggle through its available
settings. When finished, press either
return to the TrueOS® boot menu.
- 3. Select Boot Environment: In TrueOS®, boot environments
are automatically created when the system updates. They can also be
manually created using the
Boot Environment Manager. This
allows the system to boot to the point of time before an update
occurred and can be used to recover from a failed update. Press either
e to view the available boot environments.
The first time the system boots, no additional environments are
available. This menu populates as boot environments are created.
Fig. 2.9.3 Boot Options Menu
Several boot options are available in the Boot Options Menu:
- 3. Boot Single User: Advanced users can select this option
to fix critical system failures.
- 4. Verbose: Select this option to see more detailed
messages during the boot process. This can be useful when
troubleshooting a piece of hardware.
- 5. Kernel: This option indicates how many kernels are
available. Press either
k to toggle between
available kernels. This option is available to the user if they have
created a custom kernel, but wish to have a
option available in case the custom primary kernel fails.
- 6. Escape to loader prompt: Advanced users can select this
option to perform advanced operations, such as loading kernel modules.
2.9.3. Encrypted Disks
If Encrypt disk with GELI was selected during installation,
physical access to the TrueOS® system when it boots is required. As the
system starts to boot, it displays a message similar to the one shown in
Fig. 2.9.4 Master Key Decryption
The boot process will wait for the password created in the installation
screen shown in Configure Encryption. If the correct
password is typed, the system calculates the GELI encryption key then
continues to boot.
2.10. Display Detection
When booting for the first time, TrueOS® shows a
Display Settings screen, reproduced in
Fig. 2.10.1 Display Settings
Use this screen to view the detected video card and choose a graphics
driver from the expanding menu. TrueOS® also suggests a driver.
The vesa driver always works but provides sub-optimal
performance. Click on the drop-down menu to select the driver most
closely matching your video card name.
When finished, click Apply for the settings to be tested. If
anything goes wrong during testing, the system returns to the
Display Settings screen in order for the user to select
another driver. Once satisfied with the settings, click Yes
when prompted to accept them.
The Advanced tab is disabled and scheduled for
2.11. Choose a Language
Figure 2.11.1 shows the language selection screen.
Fig. 2.11.1 Language Selection
This allows for the selection of the language used to access the
installed system. It also contains three icons from the installer
screens to enable:
- Light Bulb: Reading the screen’s Help text.
- Keyboard: Use the onscreen keyboard.
- Key with US and Brazilian Flag: Choose a different keyboard layout
other than the default US style.
Once the selection is made, click Next to move to the next
2.12. Time Zone Selection
The timezone select screen, shown in Figure 2.12.1,
allows selection of the timezone and configuring the system’s host and
Fig. 2.12.1 Time Zone Selection
Use the drop-down menu to select the city closest to the system’s
location. If the system is connected to the Internet, the installer
automatically attempts to detect the correct timezone.
If the system is dual booting and the other operating system expects the
BIOS to use UTC, also check Set BIOS to UTC time.
A default system hostname is created. Change the name by typing the
desired hostname in the System Hostname field. If the
computer is a member of a DNS domain, the Domain Name is
also an option.
When finished, click Next to proceed to the next screen.
2.13. Set the Root Password
This screen, seen in Figure 2.13.1, requires setting
the root (administrative) password.
Fig. 2.13.1 Root Password Creation
The password must be a minimum of 4 characters and typed twice to
confirm the password. Try to create a complex, but memorable password,
as this is used whenever the system indicates administrative access is
required. Click Next when finished.
2.14. Create a User
This screen is used to create the primary user account used to login to
Figure 2.14.1 shows the configuration screen used to
create the initial user account.
Fig. 2.14.1 User Creation
The User Details tab is used to create a login user. This
screen requires completing several fields:
- Name: This value displays in the login screen. It can be the
user’s full name and can contain both capital letters and spaces.
- Username: This is the name used when logging in. It can not
contain spaces and is case sensitive (e.g. Kris is a different
username from kris).
- Password: This is the password to use when logging in. It must
be typed twice for confirmation.
- Specify UID: By default, the user is assigned the next available
User ID (UID). If a specific UID is required, it can be set here. A
UID can not be set lower than 1001, and a UID already in use by
another account is also unavailable.
TrueOS® provides the ability to use a removable device, such as a USB
stick, as the user’s encrypted home directory. This is useful in a
multi-user or multi-computer environment, as it provides the user with
secure access to their encrypted files. When a user initializes
PersonaCrypt with their account, their
username only appears in the login menu if the removable media
associated with that TrueOS® system is inserted. They must input the
password associated with the removable device in order to log in.
When a user is configured to use a PersonaCrypt device, that user cannot
log in using an unencrypted session on the same system. In other words,
the PersonaCrypt username is reserved only for PersonaCrypt use. If
necessary to login to both encrypted and unencrypted sessions on the
same system, create two different user accounts; one for each type of
Encryption is also possible without requiring removable
devices using PEFS. Refer to the SysAdm™ handbook section on
PEFS Encryption for more detailed instructions to
initialize a user with PEFS.
Figure 2.14.2 shows the PersonaCrypt tab.
This is used to initialize PersonaCrypt for the user.
Fig. 2.14.2 User’s PersonaCrypt Initialization
Check Initialize PersonaCrypt Device, insert a removable
media device large enough to hold a user’s home directory, then click
Ensure there are no desired files on the removable media.
Initializing the media for PersonaCrypt formats the device with ZFS
and then encrypts it with GELI, deleting any existing data.
Input and repeat the Device Password to associate with the
device. A pop-up window indicates the current contents of the device
will be wiped. Click Yes to initialize the device.
To share the computer with other users, create additional login and
PersonaCrypt accounts using the SysAdm™
User Manager. After creating at least one
user, click Next to continue.
2.15. Configure Audio Output
Figure 2.15.1 shows the Audio Output screen, where you
can choose the output device and test it.
Fig. 2.15.1 Configure Audio Output
Click the Output Device drop-down menu to select the
desired sound device. Click Test to verify the setting. If
the device works, a test sound plays. The Testing Volume
slider is also used to set the default system volume level.
All these settings can be viewed and edited at any time using the
instructions in Sound Mixer Tray.
2.16. Connect to a Wireless Network
The network card must be supported by FreeBSD. Refer to
Supported Hardware for links to FreeBSD support and a list of
known issues with different hardware.
If the system has an active wireless interface, a screen similar to
Figure 2.16.1 indicates which wireless networks are
automatically detected. Available networks are ordered by signal
Fig. 2.16.1 Wireless Network Connections
To set the default wireless connection, click the desired network in the
Available Wireless Networks area. If the network requires a
password, a window appears requesting the password and indicating the
security type used by the desired network. If the desired network is not
visible in the Available Wireless Networks area, click
Rescan. If unable to connect or to configure the connection
later, refer to Network Manager for more detailed instructions.
2.17. Enable Optional Services
Figure 2.17.1 shows a few optional system services you
Fig. 2.17.1 Optional Services
Check Disable IPV6 (Requires Reboot) to reconfigure the
system to only support IPv4 addresses. By default, the system supports
both IPv4 and IPv6, and IPv6 is preferred over IPv4.
Altering this setting does not take affect until the next
Enable Intel HDA polling enables the audio driver polling
mode. It is used in TrueOS® to support additional Intel audio devices
that would not function without polling. However, it is recommended to
not enable unless you are having extensive audio device issues, or
your Intel device requires polling mode enabled. See the
FreeBSD Manual Page
for more details.
Enable Realtek Wireless activates the Realtek wireless
If Enable SSH is checked, the SSH service both starts
immediately and is configured to start on system boot. This option also
creates the firewall rules needed to allow incoming SSH connections to
the TrueOS® system.
Do not check this box if SSH connections to the system
Enable Verbose Boot is the same option as in Boot Options Menu.
Select this option to see more detailed messages during the boot
process. This can be useful when troubleshooting a piece of hardware.
When finished choosing optional services, click Next. The
screen in Figure 2.17.2 indicates the post-installation
setup is complete. Click Finish to access the login menu.
Fig. 2.17.2 Setup Complete
2.18. Logging In
Once finished setting up the system, the PCDM (PC-BSD® Display Manager)
graphical login screen displays. An example is seen in
Fig. 2.18.1 TrueOS® Login
The hostname of the system is displayed at the top of the login window.
In this example, it is trueos-5026. This login screen has several
- User: Upon first login, the created username (from
Create a User) is the only available login user. If additional
users are created using the SysAdm™
User Manager, they are added to the
drop-down menu for more login choices. PCDM does not allow logging in
as the root user. Instead, whenever a utility requires
administrative access, TrueOS® asks for the password of the login
- Password: Input the password associated with the selected user.
- Desktop: If any additional desktops are installed using
AppCafe, use the drop-down menu to select the
desktop to log into.
If a PersonaCrypt user is active, insert the PersonaCrypt
device in order to log in. As seen in Figure 2.18.2,
this adds an extra field to the login screen so the password
associated with the PersonaCrypt device can be typed.
Fig. 2.18.2 TrueOS® PersonaCrypt Login
The toolbar across the bottom of the screen allows several options to be
selected on a per-login basis:
- Locale: If the localization was not set during installation, or
needs to be changed, click this icon to set the locale for this login
- Keyboard Layout: Click this icon to change the keyboard layout
for this login session. This opens the window seen in
Fig. 2.18.3 Keyboard Settings
Click the Keyboard model drop-down menu to select the type
The default model of Generic 104-key PC does
not support special keys such as multimedia or Windows keys.
Choose another model to enable support for hot keys.
This screen also allows selection of the Key Layout and
Variant. After making any selections, test them by typing
some text into the you may type into the space below…
It is possible to change keyboard layouts during an active
desktop session using the included fcitx utility
- Restart/Shut Down: To restart or shutdown the system without
logging in, click the Power Button icon in the
lower-right corner of the screen. This icon also allows you to
Change DPI, Refresh PCDM, and
Change Video Driver.
Once any selections are made, input the password associated with the
selected user and press
Enter or click the blue arrow